Theresa M. Lee, Dean
Angela Batey, Associate Dean for Diversity
Christine R. Boake, Associate Dean for Research and Facilities
Robert J. Hinde, Associate Dean for Academic Programs
Andrew Kramer, Associate Dean for Academic Personnel
Brent Mallinckrodt, Associate Dean for Graduate Studies
Melissa Parker, Director, Arts and Sciences Advising Services
The College of Arts and Sciences is home to a wide array of academic disciplines and interdisciplinary programs. The departments, schools, and special programs housed within the college stretch across several broad divisions: the arts and humanities, the natural sciences, and the social sciences. Although the faculty of the college have disciplinary interests that range across many diverse academic fields, the college faculty are united by a commitment to the goals and values of liberal education: unfettered intellectual inquiry, a dedication to the quest for knowledge as a worthwhile goal in and of itself, the development of a responsible and creative mind, and the cultivation of intellectual tolerance.
The liberally educated individual is characterized not so much by specific subject matter knowledge as by the habits of mind that are cultivated during a liberal education. A liberally educated person is thus one who is able to reason and communicate effectively, who values lifelong learning, and who can confront the uncertainties of human experience. A liberal education provides a strong foundation for research, scholarship, and teaching in a student’s chosen academic discipline. It also provides an invaluable educational background for a student who enters business, industry, the professions, or government or public service. A liberal education offers all individuals the opportunity to share in a rich intellectual heritage, to enjoy the adventures of the mind, and to live an engaged and fulfilling life.
The faculty of the college are committed to cultivating the habits of mind of liberal education in all of the students they teach: both those students who are pursuing concentrated study in a field within the college and those students who enroll in the academic courses offered by the college to complete University-wide general education requirements. General education serves as the underpinning of liberal education, both by providing students with opportunities to master basic learning skills and by acquainting students with the “ways of knowing” that characterize diverse academic disciplines. General education thus prepares students to become engaged lifelong learners.
Students who pursue focused studies in the College of Arts and Sciences will join a community of teacher-scholars dedicated to the generation, transmission, and preservation of knowledge in the many fields that constitute the college. The faculty of the college maintain robust agendas of research, scholarship, and creative activity in their chosen fields, and they encourage undergraduate students to join them as partners in research and creative activity. Through faculty-directed independent study and participation in faculty members’ research projects and creative activity, students hone their abilities to think critically and communicate effectively and learn how the frontiers of human knowledge are extended.
The great universities of the world are so labeled because their faculties have earned the reputation of being renowned scholars. The University of Tennessee, Knoxville, has earned such a reputation because of the quality of the research and creative activity of its faculty. To study with such a talented faculty is to experience the best education possible.
Arts and Sciences Advising Services
The mission of Arts and Sciences Advising Services is to guide our diverse undergraduate population in developing and implementing sound educational plans that are consistent with their values and their academic and career goals. Our purpose is to encourage students to become self-directed learners and decision-makers. Further, we serve as a resource to faculty and support their work with undergraduate students within the college. Finally, our efforts support the University of Tennessee’s broader mission, specifically by encouraging student persistence towards graduation.
In addition to the university policy regarding academic advising described in the policies section of the catalog, all Arts and Sciences students must be advised every term until they have earned 45 credit hours. This Arts and Sciences policy further supports students as they develop academic plans consistent with Universal Tracking (uTrack). Transfer students are required to meet with an advisor each term until they have earned 30 hours at UT Knoxville.
Programs of Study
The college offers students a wide variety of undergraduate degree programs. These programs have been designed both to help students achieve specific educational and vocational objectives and to provide students with a broad-based liberal education that will prepare them to be engaged global citizens. The college also offers a small number of three-year pre-professional curricula that prepare students for advanced study in a specific profession. Detailed information about these pre-professional curricula can be found by consulting the Pre-Professional Programs major description and by contacting Arts and Sciences Advising Services.
Bachelor of Arts (B.A.) and Bachelor of Science (B.S.)
Students earning the Bachelor of Arts and Bachelor of Science degrees have achieved both broad knowledge of the arts and sciences and a comprehensive understanding of one or more focused areas of special interest.
Bachelor of Arts in College Scholars
The College Scholars program is a college-wide honors program that serves a limited number of especially qualified and motivated students. College Scholars have additional freedom to design an individualized undergraduate curriculum that meets particular academic interests and goals. Students must apply for admission to the College Scholars program. More information about the College Scholars program is available at http://web.utk.edu/~scholars.
Students pursuing a major in selected programs in the College of Arts and Sciences are eligible to participate in the University’s VolsTeach program (http://volsteach.utk.edu/). This 4-year program permits students to complete a major in mathematics or science while also receiving secondary education teaching licensure through completion of a VolsTeach minor. For more information about VolsTeach, including advising associated with teaching licensure requirements, contact the Center for Enhancing Education in Mathematics and Science (101 Greve Hall).
The college offers pre-professional undergraduate programs for students who wish to participate in the cooperative 3+1 curricula in the health sciences (medicine, dentistry, pharmacy, or veterinary medicine) and in pre-law. Students taking one of the health sciences or pre-law curricula proceed directly to specialized training in the chosen area after the third year of Arts and Sciences study. These students complete the first year of professional study in lieu of satisfying the requirements for a traditional major in the college.
Bachelor of Science in Chemistry
See Department of Chemistry .
Bachelor of Fine Arts
See School of Art .
Bachelor of Music
See School of Music .
Information regarding readmission to the College of Arts and Sciences is available at http://admissions.utk.edu/apply/readmission-applicants/. The official notification of readmission from the Office of Undergraduate Admissions will provide additional details regarding academic advising.
Requirements for Degrees
To earn a Bachelor of Arts or Bachelor of Science degree, these requirements must be completed.
- All university degree requirements as described in the section Academic Policies and Procedures – General Requirements for a Bachelor’s Degree.
- A minimum of 120 credit hours.
- At least 42 credit hours in courses numbered 300 or above.
- Appropriate work to satisfy the Foundations, Perspectives, and Connections requirements. (These three requirements do not apply to students in the College Scholars Program.)
- Completion of any required coursework designed to prepare students for their chosen major(s). This work may be described as “preparation for” or “prerequisites to” or “corequisites to” the major(s) chosen by a student.
- Completion of at least one major consisting of 30 to 48 credit hours at 200-level or above. Courses used for the major may also be used to satisfy Foundations, Perspectives, and Connections requirements as described below.
Students may choose to complete one or more minors. A minor in the college consists of 15 or more hours at the 200-level or above.
Students may take up to 20 hours of courses graded Satisfactory/No Credit subject to the regulations described below.
Satisfactory/No Credit Courses
A few courses in the college are offered only on a Satisfactory/No Credit (S/NC) basis. Students may elect to take other courses on this basis, except where the S/NC option is specifically prohibited. Courses taken on the S/NC basis, if successfully completed, will count as hours for graduation although neither S nor NC grades will be calculated in a student’s grade point average. Satisfactory is defined as C or better work on the traditional grading scale and No Credit is defined as less than C.
The option of taking courses on an S/NC basis is provided to encourage the curious and able student to explore subject matter in fields where the student’s performance may be somewhat less outstanding than work in the student’s primary field.
Note: Students planning to seek admission to graduate or professional schools (especially in the health sciences) should discuss with their advisors possible limitations on exercise of the S/NC option before registering for courses on this basis.
The following regulations apply to S/NC coursework:
- Except for courses offered only on the S/NC basis, courses taken under the S/NC option may not be applied towards Foundations, Perspectives, or Connections requirements, towards major and minor requirements, or towards major or minor preparatory work, prerequisites, or corequisites unless specifically permitted by petition.
- The maximum number of S/NC elective hours which may be counted toward graduation is 20, exclusive of courses that are offered only on the S/NC basis, physical education courses, and/or satisfactory hours earned by examination, military service, etc.
- A transfer student with S/NC or equivalent credit earned prior to admission to the University of Tennessee, Knoxville, in a course which satisfies a Foundations, Perspectives, or Connections requirement may count it for that purpose. Transfer students who want to apply S/NC or equivalent credit to a major or minor requirement, or to major or minor preparatory work, prerequisites, or corequisites, must receive permission to do so by petition.
College-wide Requirements for B.A. and B.S. Students
To receive a B.A. or B.S. degree from the College of Arts and Sciences, students must satisfy the Foundations, Perspectives, and Connections requirements as well as the requirements for a major in the college. The Foundations, Perspectives, and Connections requirements are described in detail below.
The following rules govern students’ ability to apply courses to more than one College of Arts and Sciences degree requirement:
- Except as otherwise noted, no course may be applied to both the Perspectives requirement and the Connections requirement.
- No course may be used to satisfy two different components of the Perspectives requirement.
- Up to six credit hours of courses used to satisfy the Perspectives requirement may also be applied to the requirements of a student’s primary major.
- If a student satisfies the Connections requirement by completing a 9-credit Connections Package, one course that applies to the Connections Package may also be applied to the student’s major requirements.
- Foundations courses may be applied to the requirements of a major.
College-wide Requirements: Foundations
All students who earn a degree in the College of Arts and Sciences must complete the Foundations requirement established by the college. Satisfying the Foundations requirement demonstrates that a student can communicate effectively in English, both orally and in writing, and that a student can use the tools of quantitative analysis. The Foundations coursework requirements consist of four parts: (1) first year English composition; (2) one additional course designated as a General Education Communicating through Writing (WC) course; (3) one course designated as a General Education Communicating Orally (OC) course; and (4) two courses that provide foundational instruction in quantitative reasoning. The specific course requirements are as follows.
First Year English Composition
Completing the University’s first year English composition requirement equips students with the skills needed to write persuasive, logical and coherent essays in English; teaches students to read critically and to evaluate and cite sources in research; and helps students understand how to write effectively for different audiences and purposes. Students may complete this requirement in one of two ways.
- By completing 6 hours in English writing courses – either ENGL 101 and ENGL 102 ; or ENGL 118 and ENGL 102 ; or ENGL 131 and ENGL 132 . Students who obtain a grade of B or higher in ENGL 118 may complete the first year English composition requirement with ENGL 102 , or with a 200-level course in the English Department, or with ENGL 355 . The 200-level English course may, if so listed, also be used toward one component of the college-wide Perspectives requirement.
- By earning a score of 4 or 5 on the College Board Advanced Placement Test in Literature and Composition. (Students who take the Advanced Placement Test in Language and Composition, and earn a score of 4 or 5, will receive credit for ENGL 101 only.)
First Year English Placement Information
Eligibility for ENGL 118 - Honors: English Composition will be determined by ACT or SAT scores. Placement in ENGL 131 - Composition for Non-Native Speakers of English I will be determined by TOEFL (or equivalent standardized test) scores. All students enrolled in either ENGL 101 or ENGL 131 may simultaneously enroll in ENGL 103 - Writing Workshop I to receive additional instruction in writing. Selected students enrolled in either ENGL 101 or ENGL 131 will be placed in ENGL 103 based on ACT or SAT scores; these students may not drop ENGL 103 without departmental approval. Details are available from the English Department.
A student must complete the first year composition requirement prior to enrolling in English courses numbered 200 or higher.
Communicating through Writing
To further develop the writing skills that are foundational to advanced work in the College of Arts and Sciences, all students pursuing a degree from the college must, after satisfying the first year English composition requirement, complete one additional course designated as a General Education Communicating through Writing (WC) course. This additional course may also be applied to either the Perspectives or Connections requirement of the college and may be used to satisfy major requirements.
The ability to communicate one’s ideas orally is as important as the ability to express them in writing, and oral communication skills are foundational to advanced work in the College of Arts and Sciences. All students pursuing a degree from the college must therefore complete one course designated as a General Education Communicating Orally (OC) course.
This course may also be applied to either the Perspectives or Connections requirement of the college and may be used to satisfy major requirements.
All students pursuing a degree from the College of Arts and Sciences must demonstrate the ability to use the tools of quantitative analysis. Students may meet this college requirement either by completing two of the following courses, or by completing one of the following courses and also COSC 100 , PHIL 130 , or PHIL 235 .
MATH 113 , MATH 115 , MATH 117 , MATH 123 , MATH 125 , MATH 141 , MATH 142 , MATH 147 , MATH 148 , MATH 151 , MATH 152 , MATH 202 ; STAT 201 , STAT 207 .
College-wide Requirements: Perspectives
All students who earn a degree from the College of Arts and Sciences must complete the Perspectives requirement established by the college. The Perspectives requirement is designed to introduce students to the modes of inquiry and discourse that characterize various academic disciplines and to the ways in which hypotheses are constructed and evaluated. In completing the Perspectives requirement, students also gain an informed appreciation for the diverse natures of the world’s cultures and societies, whether historical or present-day, and for the artistic and cultural milestones created by these cultures and societies. Perspectives courses thus prepare students to become broadly-educated, engaged, and responsible citizens.
Arts and Humanities
By studying the arts and humanities, and by participating as an informed and appreciative observer of artistic and cultural achievements in fields within the visual, spatial, musical, theatrical, or written arts, we gain new perspectives on the human experience and on humankind’s creative impulse. Studying the arts and humanities also develops our critical thinking and analytical skills as we consider historical and present-day answers to the enduring question “What common experiences, if any, make up the human experience?” The Arts and Humanities component of the Perspectives requirement serves to introduce students to the modes of inquiry that are employed in the fields that constitute the arts and humanities, to help students understand how aesthetic and moral judgments are arrived at and defended, and to acquaint students with the artistic and cultural achievements of both the past and the present.
Students may meet this requirement by completing two courses, from two different departments, chosen from the lists below. At least one course must be chosen from List A (Literature and Philosophical and Religious Thought).
List A – Literature and Philosophical and Religious Thought
AFST 225 ; CLAS 221 , CLAS 222 , CLAS 253 ; ENGL 201 , ENGL 202 , ENGL 206 , ENGL 207 , ENGL 208 , ENGL 221 , ENGL 222 , ENGL 226 , ENGL 231 , ENGL 232 , ENGL 233 , ENGL 237 , ENGL 238 , ENGL 247 , ENGL 248 , ENGL 251 , ENGL 252 , ENGL 253 , ENGL 254 , ENGL 258 ; PHIL 101 , PHIL 107 , PHIL 200 , PHIL 244 , PHIL 252 ; RUSS 221 , RUSS 222 .
List B – Study or Practice of the Arts
ARCH 111 , ARCH 117 , ARCH 211 , ARCH 212 , ARCH 217 , ARCH 218 ; ARTD 150 ; ARTH 162 , ARTH 167 , ARTH 172 , ARTH 173 , ARTH 177 , ARTH 178 , ARTH 183 , ARTH 187 ; CLAS 232 ; MUCO 110 , MUCO 115 , MUCO 120 , MUCO 125 , MUCO 290 ; THEA 100 , THEA 107 .
Science and technology play an important role in many aspects of modern life, and as citizens we are increasingly asked to make decisions about public policy questions with scientific or technological aspects. Familiarity with scientific methods of inquiry and with the development and testing of scientific hypotheses provides us with the foundation to make these decisions in an informed and responsible way, and also helps us distinguish science from pseudoscience. The Natural Sciences component of the Perspectives requirement serves to introduce students both to the basic discoveries, foundational knowledge, and logical organization of a scientific discipline and to the experimental methods used in that discipline for scientific inquiry and for the testing of scientific hypotheses.
Students may satisfy this requirement by completing one of the 8-credit laboratory sequences listed below.
ASTR 151 -ASTR 153 and ASTR 152 -ASTR 154 (all four of these courses must be completed to fulfill the 8-credit requirement), ASTR 217 -ASTR 218 ; BIOL 101 -BIOL 102 , BIOL 111 -BIOL 112 , BIOL 150 -BIOL 160 -BIOL 159 (all three of these courses must be completed to fulfill the 8-credit requirement), BIOL 158 -BIOL 168 -BIOL 167 (all three of these courses must be completed to fulfill the 8-credit requirement); CHEM 100 -CHEM 110 , CHEM 120 -CHEM 130 , CHEM 128 -CHEM 138 ; GEOG 131 -GEOG 132 , GEOG 137 -GEOG 132 ; two courses chosen from GEOL 101 , GEOL 102 , GEOL 103 , GEOL 104 , GEOL 107 , GEOL 108 ; PHYS 135 -PHYS 136 , PHYS 137 -PHYS 138 , PHYS 221 -PHYS 222 .
The disciplines that make up the social sciences help us analyze the interactions that take place between individuals, between groups or societies, and between an individual and a group. Studying these interactions helps us understand the political and social dynamics that govern contemporary societies. Equipped with this understanding, we can participate more effectively, and as informed and engaged citizens, in social, political, and economic decision making. The Social Sciences component of the Perspectives requirement serves to introduce students both to the principal concerns of disciplines in the social sciences and to the methods by which social scientists collect and evaluate knowledge and test hypotheses.
Students may meet this requirement by completing two courses, from two different departments, chosen from the list below.
AFST 201 , AFST 202 ; ANTH 130 , ANTH 137 ; CFS 210 , CFS 220 ; ECON 201 , ECON 207 ; EDPY 210 ; GEOG 101 , GEOG 111 , GEOG 121 ; POLS 101 , POLS 102 , POLS 107 ; PSYC 110 , PSYC 117 ; REST 232 , REST 233 ; SOCI 110 , SOCI 120 , SOCI 127 ; UNHO 267 , UNHO 268 .
Learning a foreign language helps prepare a student to become an engaged global citizen. Studying the vocabulary, grammatical structure, and literary milestones of a second language can help students understand the close relationship between language and culture, and can provide students with tools that can be used to both understand and bridge cultural differences. Study of a foreign language can also help us understand better the structure and nuances of our own native language. The Foreign Language component of the Perspectives requirement supports the broad goals of liberal education by promoting intellectual tolerance and flexibility, informing students’ understanding of cultural diversity, and introducing students to the literary achievements of authors writing in other languages.
Students may meet this college requirement in one of four ways.
- Completion of one of the following intermediate-level foreign language sequences: ARAB 221 -ARAB 222 ; ASST 241 -ASST 242 , ASST 261 -ASST 262 ; CHIN 231 -CHIN 232 ; FREN 211 -FREN 212 , FREN 217 -FREN 218 ; GERM 211 -GERM 212 ; (Greek) CLAS 261 -CLAS 264 ; (Latin) CLAS 251 -CLAS 252 ; ITAL 211 -ITAL 212 ; JAPA 251 -JAPA 252 ; PORT 211 -PORT 212 ; REST 221 -REST 222 ; RUSS 201 -RUSS 202 ; SPAN 211 -SPAN 212 , or SPAN 217 -SPAN 218 .
- Completion of a six-hour intensive intermediate-level foreign language course. Any one of the following courses will satisfy the requirement: FREN 223 , GERM 223 , ITAL 223 , PORT 223 , SPAN 223 .
- Demonstration of intermediate competence on a departmental placement or proficiency examination or by AP or CLEP credit.
- Students whose native language is not English may satisfy the requirement with ENGL 131 and ENGL 132 and any two of the following courses: AFST 225 , AFST 226 , AFST 233 ; CHIN 311 ; CLAS 253 ; COLI 202 ; ENGL 201 , ENGL 202 , ENGL 206 , ENGL 207 , ENGL 208 , ENGL 221 , ENGL 222 , ENGL 225 , ENGL 226 , ENGL 231 , ENGL 232 , ENGL 233 , ENGL 237 , ENGL 238 , ENGL 247 , ENGL 248 , ENGL 251 , ENGL 252 , ENGL 253 , ENGL 254 , ENGL 258 ; INSC 330 ; ITAL 401 , ITAL 402 ; JAPA 313 , JAPA 314 ; JST 312 ; LAC 315 ; MRST 261 , MRST 262 , MRST 401 , MRST 402 ; MFLL 300 ; PORT 315 ; REST 312 ; RUSS 221 , RUSS 222 .
Foreign Language Placement Information
All students who wish to enroll in a foreign language course, who have completed at least two years of this language in high school and who have not yet taken a college course in the language, must take a placement examination before enrolling. Placement in the appropriate course will be determined by the score on the examination. Examinations for most languages will be given online prior to orientation and at any time during the fall, spring, and summer. Students who place into 200-level courses will receive six hours of elementary language credit upon successful completion of a 200-level course in the same language, provided that they do not subsequently enroll and receive credit for any 100-level course in the same language. If they do, elementary placement credit is forfeited and removed from the student’s transcript.
Students who place into 300-level courses will receive six hours of intermediate language credit upon successful completion of a 300-level course in the same language, provided that they do not subsequently enroll and receive credit for any 200-level course in the same language. If they do, intermediate placement credit is forfeited and removed from the student’s transcript. Those students who place into 200- or 300-level courses and do not wish to continue in a language, but wish to receive six hours of 100- or 200-level credit, respectively, for their online exam, may do so by completing a proctored placement exam during the fall, spring, or summer and confirming the results of their online placement exam.
Placement test scores expire after one year. Students have one year from the date on which they take the placement exam to either register for the course for which they are eligible (as determined by their placement test score) or complete the proctored placement exam to confirm the results of the online exam. After the one-year period elapses, students will have to take the placement test again.
Careful and thoughtful study of the past, and of the diversity of human societies and cultures found around the world, helps us understand the historical origins of contemporary society. By investigating change and continuity in human societies, and by asking how historical contexts shape people, events, and ideas, students can also further develop their analytical and critical thinking skills. The Non-U.S. History component of the Perspectives requirement serves to introduce students to the modes of inquiry that are employed in the study of human history, to help students understand how hypotheses about the historical past are formulated and tested, and to improve students’ understanding of how historical events have shaped present-day society.
Students may meet this requirement by completing one of the following pairs of courses. All courses listed here are writing-emphasis courses.
AFST 235 -AFST 236 ; HIST 241 -HIST 242 , HIST 247 -HIST 248 , HIST 255 -HIST 256 , HIST 261 -HIST 262 , HIST 267 -HIST 268 ; LAC 251 -LAC 252 ; MRST 201 -MRST 202 .
With recent advances in transportation and communication technologies and changes in the nature of global economic forces, many environmental, political, and social concerns have acquired distinctive international or transnational dimensions. Courses that satisfy the Global Challenges requirement provide students with the opportunity for focused inquiry into the historical origins of, or contemporary thought regarding, one of the critical international or transnational issues facing today’s world.
Students satisfy this component of the Perspectives requirement by completing one of the following courses.
BIOL 105 , BIOL 150 ; ENGL 225 , ENGL 226 , ENGL 335 , ENGL 336 , ENGL 423 ; GEOG 101 , GEOG 111 , GEOG 131 , GEOG 132 , GEOG 137 , GEOG 320 , GEOG 331 , GEOG 340 , GEOG 343 , GEOG 344 , GEOG 371 , GEOG 374 , GEOG 375 , GEOG 413 , GEOG 430 , GEOG 435 , GEOG 442 , GEOG 445 , GEOG 449 , GEOG 451 ; MFLL 300 ; PHIL 346 , PHIL 441 ; POLS 453 , POLS 461 , POLS 463 , POLS 471 , POLS 474 ; REST 101 , REST 102 , REST 386 , REST 476 ; SOCI 341 , SOCI 342 , SOCI 375 , SOCI 442 , SOCI 446 .
College-wide Requirements: Connections
In completing the Connections requirement of the college, students undertake a focused educational experience that complements in-depth study in their chosen major field. Students may satisfy the Connections requirement in one of three ways.
- Completion of nine credit hours of study abroad coursework. These nine hours of coursework may, if appropriate, be applied to non-Connections degree requirements. The nine hours of coursework do not need to be taken during a single academic term or at a single study abroad site. Students interested in pursuing study abroad are strongly encouraged to contact a study abroad advisor at the Center for International Education.
- Completion of a minor or a second major. The minor or second major may be in the College of Arts and Sciences or in another college. Courses used to satisfy the requirements of a minor or a second major may also be used to meet Perspectives requirements.
- Completion of nine credit hours drawn from one of the Connections Packages listed here. The nine credit hours must be drawn from at least two different departments. Three of the nine credit hours may be applied toward a student’s major requirements. Connections Packages are topically-oriented collections of upper-division courses that have been designed by faculty to focus students’ attention on questions that have substantial multidisciplinary character.
Ancient Mediterranean Studies
The “Ancient Mediterranean Studies” Connections Package emphasizes the history and cultures of the people who lived around the Mediterranean Sea from prehistory through the end of late antiquity. Because of the conquests of Alexander the Great and the later unification of the region under the Roman Empire, the influence of the ancient Mediterranean has been far-reaching: from the philosophy of Plato and Aristotle to the art that inspired the Renaissance, from the literature we call the Classics to the medical tradition of the Hippocratic Oath, from Athenian democracy to the Roman Senate, and from the development of Judaism to the rise of Christianity. It is difficult to exaggerate the influence that the ancient Mediterranean has had on Western history and continues to have in our world today. This Connections Package includes courses from Art History, Classics, History, Philosophy, and Religious Studies, emphasizing the deeply interdisciplinary nature inherent in the study of the Ancient Mediterranean world.
Students who complete this Connections Package will be able to: (1) analyze the rich connectivity among the different micro-regions of the ancient Mediterranean; (2) recognize the influence of ancient Mediterranean cultures in our world today; and (3) communicate orally and in writing across traditional disciplinary boundaries.
ARTH 425 ; CLAS 302 , CLAS 306 , CLAS 381 , CLAS 382 , CLAS 384 , CLAS 441 , CLAS 442 , CLAS 443 , CLAS 444 , CLAS 445 , CLAS 461 ; HIST 304 , HIST 305 , HIST 311 , HIST 382 , HIST 383 ; PHIL 320 , PHIL 322 , PHIL 327 ; REST 311 , REST 312 , REST 321 , REST 322 , REST 413 , REST 423 .
Biodiversity and Humans
The loss of biodiversity resulting from growing human populations and impacts on Earth is an issue of great global concern, given the importance of biodiversity for human welfare. The concept of biodiversity encompasses the number of species of plants, animals, fungi, and microorganisms in different areas and in the world as a whole, the genes in these species, and the different ecosystems in which the species are found. As humans we are a part of Earth’s biodiversity, and we are shaped by and depend upon the biodiversity around us while also strongly influencing it. Human actions can promote local increases in biodiversity, but on a global scale we are responsible for huge and increasing losses in biodiversity, including species extinctions that have greatly altered the natural world and may threaten human survival. The multidisciplinary theme of this connections package is the interrelationships between biodiversity and humans, including how biodiversity is explored, documented, conceptualized, and exploited by humans; how biodiversity can be increased or decreased by human activity and environmental changes; how changes in biodiversity affect human society and the natural world; and patterns of human biodiversity and their causes.
Students who complete the Biodiversity and Humans connections package will be able to: (1) identify methods used to document and study biodiversity; (2) describe patterns in biodiversity across different wild or managed ecosystems; (3) explain the importance of biodiversity for humans; and (4) give examples of natural and anthropogenic forces that cause changes in biodiversity.
ANTH 303 ; EEB 304 , EEB 305 , EEB 306 , EEB 330 , EEB 351 , EEB 424 , EEB 484 ; GEOG 413 , GEOG 435 , GEOG 439 ; GEOL 320 ; SOCI 363 .
Cultural and Artistic Achievement: Arts in the United States
Artistic creation is one significant way that some members of a society respond to and try to represent the culture in which they live and work. This connections package will focus on the traditions of artistic achievement in the visual and fine arts, music, film, and literature produced by artists living and working in the United States.
Students who select this package will be able to: (1) recognize and analyze the aesthetic similarities and differences among various art forms produced in the United States; (2) describe the historical development of conventions and traditions in different art forms; and (3) recognize the relationships between art works and the cultures within which those works were created.
ARTH 470 , ARTH 472 , ARTH 473 ; ENGL 331 , ENGL 332 , ENGL 333 , ENGL 334 , ENGL 381 , ENGL 444 ; MUCO 411 , MUCO 413 ; POLS 312 ; REST 354 .
The main goal of this connections package is to provide students with the background and analytical tools to understand the dynamics that have facilitated the rise of some of the fastest growing economies in the world across the past half century, and, to understand the impacts of these countries within the region and around the world. The catalysts for the recent economic development and increasing geopolitical power of countries such as China, India, and Japan are rooted in numerous (and interconnected) economic, geographical, historical, and political factors, some of which were influenced by outside actions (and actors).
Students completing this package will be able to: (1) understand the myriad historical factors that have catalyzed this explosive growth, and just as important, stifled development in other parts of Asia; (2) explore patterns of growth in terms of rising economic, industrial, and geopolitical power across the Asia-Pacific region; (3) recognize the cultural, economic, and political impacts of this growth not only on China, India, Japan, South Korea, and other countries across Asia, but also outside of the region; and (4) assess the local, regional, and global environmental impacts of this explosive growth.
GEOG 374 , GEOG 375 , GEOG 451 ; HIST 389 , HIST 390 , HIST 392 , HIST 393 ; POLS 410 , POLS 454 , POLS 471 , POLS 474 , POLS 479 .
Environment and Society
Environment and Society provides students with a strong social, biophysical and ecological foundation that can be used to identify and assess major socio-environmental issues facing the Earth, the United States and Southern Appalachia. Courses in this cluster engage topics and methodologies related to biodiversity, industrialization and urbanization, pollution, climate change, population, technology, energy resources and environmental justice.
Students completing this package will be able to: (1) recognize the interconnectedness of self, society, and nature; (2) analyze policies, conflicts, and places and degrees of environmental danger; and (3) consider alternatives to current practices.
GEOG 331 , GEOG 333 , GEOG 345 , GEOG 365 , GEOG 430 , GEOG 433 , GEOG 434 , GEOG 435 , GEOG 436 , GEOG 439 ; PHIL 346 ; SOCI 360 , SOCI 363 , SOCI 463 , SOCI 465 .
Geographic Information Science for Our Changing World
Recent developments in Geographic Information Science (GIS) and Technology are transforming our environment and society, changing our natural and societal behaviors/practices in different parts of the world. Understanding the technical and theoretical aspects of GIS is of critical importance to train a new generation of students in developing and applying GIS on various issues associated with environment, natural resources, and social imperatives, which in turn exert their impacts on our dynamic world.
Students completing this package will be able to: (1) understand the problem-solving values of GIS and its role on the information-based society and environment/natural resource management of the twenty-first century; (2) obtain a solid understanding of GIS to analyze environmental and social issues from a spatially integrated science perspective; and (3) gain hands-on experience with a variety of geospatial technologies, ranging from desktop-based to web-based mapping, spatial analysis, and remote sensing-based data processing, to address various environmental and societal issues.
ANTH 325 , ANTH 420 ; GEOG 310 , GEOG 333 , GEOG 344 , GEOG 411 , GEOG 413 , GEOG 414 , GEOG 415 , GEOG 433 , GEOG 436 , GEOG 441 , GEOG 449 , GEOG 454 ; GEOL 425 , GEOL 450 , GEOL 455 ; POLS 472 ; SOCI 360 , SOCI 465 .
Global Social Justice
This connections package explores the problems and promises of social justice in a global age. Courses illuminate the various visions of globalization and the multiple methods and theories through which to analyze the modern world. In order to better understand and address some of the world’s most pressing social problems, students explore the social, economic, political, cultural, ideological, and historical processes that connect disparate parts of the world in highly unequal ways, examining the various factors that contribute to social injustice. Students completing this package will be able to: (1) recognize key processes and elements of globalization as they relate to injustice; (2) critically examine the differential effects of globalization on historically marginalized, oppressed, and vulnerable groups; and (3) consider fair, equitable, and beneficial policies and pathways for peoples engaged in struggles and contests for social justice.
AMST 310 , AMST 450 ; GEOG 343 , GEOG 451 ; PHIL 391 , PHIL 441 ; SOCI 341 , SOCI 342 , SOCI 345 , SOCI 442 , SOCI 446 , SOCI 449 , SOCI 451 , SOCI 452 , SOCI 453 , SOCI 455 , SOCI 472 .
How to Live in the Premodern World
The connections package “How to Live in the Premodern World” explores how people in the period before ca. 1600 CE responded to the fundamental human problem of how one ought to live life. Students who complete this package will learn about various modes in which people in antiquity conceived of the question of proper living, including religion, philosophy, and social roles. Students will furthermore become familiar with representative examples of these things from various places and times before the modern era, with possibilities ranging from Chinese philosophy to Roman physical ideals and Middle Eastern religion. Finally, students who complete this package will also come to understand different ways scholars in the present examine attitudes and conceptions in antiquity, drawing not only upon texts but also through archaeological exploration and the study of material culture.
Students completing this package will: (1) learn about the ways in which people in premodern (before ca. 1600 CE) societies conceived of the question of a proper life; (2) become familiar with representative answers to that question that appeared in various times and places; and (3) understand methods used by modern scholars to study attitudes and concepts in the distant past
CLAS 340 , CLAS 345 , CLAS 381 , CLAS 382 , CLAS 384 , CLAS 436 , CLAS 442 , CLAS 443 , CLAS 444 ; HIST 369 , HIST 370 , HIST 382 , HIST 383 , HIST 394 , HIST 475 ; PHIL 320 ; REST 311 , REST 312 , REST 379 , REST 383 .
Humans Living on a Dynamic Earth
The Earth’s environment is constantly changing, but just how much and how fast the Earth has changed and is changing has evoked considerable debate. The public often receives misinformation when all the public wants is answers to questions such as: “Is the Earth actually warming up?” “Why can’t we predict hurricanes and earthquakes?” and “How long have humans been altering our environment?” Courses included in the Humans Living on a Dynamic Earth Connections package provide focused opportunities for our undergraduates to learn about our ever-changing Earth and how humans have and will continue to alter the Earth.
Students completing this package will be able to: (1) understand why our Earth’s surface is constantly changing; (2) recognize the gradual (such as erosion by water, wind, and ice) and abrupt (earthquakes and volcanic eruptions) processes that altered and created the landscapes we live in today; and (3) assess and understand how humans have impacted our environment.
ANTH 360 , ANTH 462 , ANTH 463 , ANTH 466 ; GEOG 331 , GEOG 333 , GEOG 345 , GEOG 413 , GEOG 430 , GEOG 432 , GEOG 433 , GEOG 435 , GEOG 436 , GEOG 439 ; GEOL 320 , GEOL 340 , GEOL 450 , GEOL 455 , GEOL 456 , GEOL 459 , GEOL 460 , GEOL 485 .
Inequalities: Race, Ethnicity, Class, and Gender
This connections package reflects an interdisciplinary approach to the study of race, ethnicity, class, and gender and how these social categories produce stratification, discrimination, and inequality. It focuses upon the ways in which categories of difference interact with one another to shape identities, opportunities, life experiences, and life chances by exploring what categories of difference mean and how they have been defined, constructed, and applied in various contexts.
Students completing this package will: (1) engage in a critical examination of the construction of race, ethnicity, class, and gender in a variety of social, cultural, historical, political, and economic contexts; (2) develop skills in critical thinking, comparative analysis, theory, research methods, and written expression as it relates to identity; and (3) explore strategies and policies necessary for a more informed understanding of difference.
AMST 310 ; CLAS 384 ; ENGL 331 , ENGL 332 , ENGL 333 , ENGL 444 ; GEOG 363 , GEOG 365 , GEOG 442 ; GERM 433 , GERM 434 ; HIST 380 , HIST 436 ; PHIL 382 ; SOCI 341 , SOCI 343 , SOCI 344 , SOCI 345 , SOCI 375 , SOCI 442 , SOCI 451 , SOCI 452 , SOCI 453 , SOCI 463 , SOCI 466 , SOCI 472 ; SPAN 433 , SPAN 484 .
Mobility and Migration
Modern transportation and communication technologies contribute to an increase in mobility and migration worldwide. This connections package explores identity issues related to mobility and migration, and the historical, socio-cultural, and political contexts within which mobility and migration take place. It also addresses policy issues and ethical questions related to mobility and migration, and the creation, maintenance, and policing of (inter)national borders. Students completing this package will be able to: (1) explain factors that contribute to contemporary forms of mobility and migration; (2) analyze historical, political, social, cultural, and ethical aspects of mobility and migration; and (3) place mobility and migration issues in a national and global context.
ANTH 320 , ANTH 322 , ANTH 325 ; ENGL 333 ; GEOG 344 , GEOG 442 , GEOG 449 ; GERM 433 ; HIST 434 ; ITAL 414 ; PHIL 441 ; SPAN 465 .
New Geographies of the Global Economy
International trade has increased rapidly in recent decades, encompassing movements in raw materials, manufactured goods, services, information, and labor. Given the current state of the global economy, the location-based aspects of economic activities become even more important to examine, especially in terms of the impacts of trade on people at various scales, ranging from the local to the global levels. Students completing this package will be able to: (1) recognize patterns of trade and economic development; (2) analyze the impacts of trade on economic development and labor; and (3) recognize and evaluate disparities in development, trade policies, wealth, and economic growth.
GEOG 340 , GEOG 445 , GEOG 451 ; POLS 350 , POLS 471 , POLS 479 ; SOCI 342 , SOCI 442 , SOCI 446 .
Our World: Contemporary Arts and Culture
Characterized by globalization, political crisis, and the entrance of technology into all facets of everyday life, the period from 1945 to the present arguably has seen some of the most drastic and accelerated changes of cultural life in human history. Focusing on how the humanities and social sciences analyze and contribute to these changes, this package offers students a rich and complex experience of the post-WWII era, teaching them skills and perspectives that they will need to enter today’s global environment. Courses in the package emphasize critical thinking, comparative analysis, and research methods. Coursework asks students to consider the thorny issues of non-negotiable cross-cultural contact, how we formulate political and ethical values in today’s complex world, and the important role of the arts (movies, books, music, media) in constructing our reality.
Students completing this package will be able to: (1) recognize historical, cultural, and sociological movements important to post-945 political environments; (2) analyze the relationships between art and culture that are important to contemporary life; (3) evaluate the importance of new, contemporary art forms in relation to previous arts theories, movements, and performances; and (4) articulate philosophical, ethical, political, and sociological positions concerning how new global exchanges reconfigure how we think about the world and our place within it.
ANTH 320 , ANTH 325 ; CNST 422 ; ENGL 334 , ENGL 335 , ENGL 336 , ENGL 340 , ENGL 345 , ENGL 423 , ENGL 453 , ENGL 456 , ENGL 459 ; GEOG 320 ; GERM 323 , GERM 416 ; ITAL 414 , JAPA 321 ; MUCO 412 , MUCO 413 ; PORT 315 , PORT 326 , PORT 430 ; RUSS 424 , SOCI 472 .
Rise and Decline of Premodern Complex Societies
The connections package “Rise and Decline of Premodern Complex Societies” consists of courses that explore socio-political organization and change in Europe, the Middle East, Africa, the Far East and the New World predating the European Renaissance. One of the fundamental questions in premodern history and archaeology is how complex societies developed from the simple villages that were the earliest form of permanent settlement in human history. This question has bearing on basic issues of the human condition that are still very much in focus in the world today: human relationships, the ability to organize and incorporate ever larger population groups, the development of socio-political elites, and the wielding of power. Conversely, even though complex societies as a rule had a degree of built-in stability, all have come to an end. A continuing discourse in social archaeology and history is concerned with the question of how complex societies collapsed and reverted to a simpler level of socio-political organization. Students will explore these issues through written and/or archaeological evidence as well as by examining current scholarly approaches.
Students who complete this package will learn to (1) analyze different ways in which premodern societies in various parts of the world were organized; and (2) evaluate how these societies experienced – and dealt with – societal change.
ANTH 360 , ANTH 462 , ANTH 463 ; CLAS 302 , CLAS 306 , CLAS 362 , CLAS 436 , CLAS 442 , CLAS 443 , CLAS 444 , CLAS 445 ; HIST 304 , HIST 305 , HIST 311 , HIST 312 , HIST 369 , HIST 370 , HIST 371 , HIST 382 , HIST 383 , HIST 389 , HIST 400 ; POLS 475 .
Shifting Borders and Cultures in Europe
With the growing importance of the European Union, both the cultures of Europe and its very borders have become more dynamic and contested. This connections package offers students a multifaceted set of lenses through which to investigate broad themes and issues in European history from the medieval period up until the present day. The varied approaches of courses on political and economic history, literature and film, history of science and conceptions of gender, sexuality, and ethnic identity allows students to piece together a comprehensive overview of the changing physical, cultural, religious, and economic characteristics of Europe from the Middle Ages to today.
Students completing this package will be able to: (1) understand and analyze topics in European history, geography, culture, literature, and religion across regions and centuries; (2) engage with a variety of perspectives on shifting borders and cultures in Europe and develop skills to make synthetic and comparative arguments about them in their socio-cultural and historical context; and (3) cultivate basic research skills, develop analytical writing abilities, and practice writing to advance an argument.
GEOG 371 ; GERM 323 , GERM 350 , GERM 363 ; HIST 320 , HIST 332 , HIST 334 , HIST 434 , HIST 435 ; REST 385 , REST 386 .
Understanding Climate Change
Climate change is one of the most significant issues of our time, but few citizens have the background to understand the public debates it raises or to move beyond the focus on “Is climate changing?” to consider the effects of climate change on environments, ecosystems, and economies – and humankind’s options for the future. Courses included in the Understanding Climate Change connection package provide opportunities for focused inquiry into the nature of the climate system; how climate interacts with and affects weather, ocean processes, hazards, vegetation, wildlife, and human activity; the evidence for climate change in the past and present; and the longer-term context of natural climate change and variability.
Students who complete this connections package will be able to: (1) identify natural and anthropogenic causes of climate change; (2) describe sources of data on past climate; (3) give examples of how past changes in climate have affected Earth’s environments and ecosystems; (4) recognize how climate change affects human society; and (5) place current climate trends in their longer-term context.
EEB 404 , EEB 433 ; GEOG 331 , GEOG 333 , GEOG 334 , GEOG 430 , GEOG 432 , GEOG 434 , GEOG 439 ; GEOL 456 , GEOL 459 .
Visual Cultures and Media Studies
In a globalized world, the study of cinema has acquired a new meaning. From the 1960s onward, many countries have witnessed escalating violence, social unrest and war. Many scholars have examined the cinematic representation of these events, however, the process of negotiation inside different countries’ popular cinematic genre has just started to be mapped out. This connection package demonstrates that some of the most important documents of self-representation in the 20th century and of its cultural-political disorientation can be found in films. International references are ever-present in many national cinemas together with the recording of fluctuating national identities, as a consequence the study of cinematic products instead of displaying a direct reliance on Hollywood cultural formats, presents a multiplicity of discordant messages. Cinema after the 1960s occupies a liminal zone that traverses cultures, genres and tastes and challenges the notion of a national cinema that speaks only to its own people. The courses in this package all address aspects of visual culture in the media, be it in film, TV, print, digital media, or the arts. The prominence of the visual in today’s world and its use and abuse for political and social agendas makes it pertinent that we learn how to critically read the visual image. This package also includes courses that offer critical tools for analyzing media in the digital age from cinematic, historical, socio-political and economic point of views.
Students completing this package will be able to: (1) critically analyze their own culture; (2) demonstrate knowledge of foreign cultures other than their own; (3) demonstrate insight into aspects of world geography, global economics, international politics, various religions, philosophies, histories, languages, literatures, or arts; (4) demonstrate intercultural communication concepts; (5) evaluate the impact of historical forces on the modern world; (6) explain the causes of domestic and global social problems; (7) identify and summarize concepts of interdependence; and (8) recognize global systems, processes, social constructs, trends, and issues.
ENGL 334 ; FREN 420 ; GEOG 423 ; GERM 323 ; ITAL 422 ; JAPA 315 ; PHIL 350 ; POLS 312 ; PORT 326 ; SOCI 410 ; SPAN 434 .
Requirements for specific majors vary by program and are discussed under each department or program. A major consists of 30 to 48 credit hours in courses numbered 200 or above as specified by the department or program. Courses taken to satisfy the college Foundations requirement may, when appropriate, be used in the major. Up to six credit hours used to satisfy major requirements may also be used to satisfy Perspectives requirements. A minimum grade of C must be earned in every course counted as part of the major. This grade requirement does not apply to preparatory coursework, prerequisites, or corequisites unless otherwise stated by the department.
All first-time, first-year UT Knoxville students who are admitted to an exploratory program must declare a major no later than the end of their fourth tracking semester. Transfer students with less than 45 hours of transferable work must declare a major no later than the end of their second full semester at UT. Transfer students with 45 hours or more of transferable work must be admitted directly into a major. Returning students may declare a major as soon as they have met required standards; however, they must officially declare a major by the time they have earned 75 credit hours.
The requirements for declaring a specific major are stated under the department or program listing. To declare a major, students should go to the academic department which houses the major. To declare an interdisciplinary major and for more information, contact Arts and Sciences Advising Services.
Students transferring from other institutions must complete at least nine credit hours at the University of Tennessee, Knoxville, in each major earned in the College of Arts and Sciences. Students may elect as many courses as desired in any department or program. Majors available for students pursuing a B.A. or B.S. degree include: anthropology, art, art history, biological sciences, chemistry, classics, economics, English, geography, geology and environmental studies, history, interdisciplinary programs, mathematics, modern foreign languages and literatures, music, philosophy, physics, political science, psychology, religious studies, sociology, statistics, and theatre.
Optional Multiple Majors
After a student has satisfied the general Foundations and Perspectives requirements, and the requirements of a major, additional majors may be recorded on the transcript without regard to course overlap among majors or among the additional majors and Foundations, Perspectives, or Connections requirements, provided a minimum of 18 distinct credit hours differentiates the primary major from the additional majors. Students developing multiple majors must declare this intent at the time of application for graduation. Once a student has graduated, the establishment of additional majors becomes subject to university second degree requirements.
Students who satisfy the requirements of a degree in a college other than Arts and Sciences may also major inside the College of Arts and Sciences with the approval of the degree-granting unit. These students need complete only the major requirements, not the Foundations, Perspectives, or Connections requirements for Arts and Sciences degrees. The Arts and Sciences major may also be listed on the student’s transcript.
At the time of application for graduation, single or multiple minors may be recorded on the academic record without regard to course overlap among minors and major or among minors and Foundations and Perspectives requirements. Students who satisfy the requirements of a degree in a college other than Arts and Sciences may also minor inside the College of Arts and Sciences with the approval of the degree-granting unit. The minimum requirement for a minor is 15 credit hours in courses numbered 200 or above. Minors are available in most departments or programs in which majors are offered and also in astronomy. Minors may be developed in other colleges or schools of the university, but must be approved by the head of the department in which the minor is proposed. At least 6 of the 15 credit hours required for a minor must be completed at the University of Tennessee, Knoxville.
Students completing a B.A. or B.S. degree in the college have the opportunity to select elective courses that supplement and support the work being done in the major and in the college-wide Foundations, Perspectives, and Connections requirements. This dimension of the student’s experience at the university represents that freedom within which total education may be rounded out and enriched. Elective courses should be chosen with care so that they will truly enhance the student’s total program and help in the achievement of well thought-out educational objectives.
Some of the choices which the student might make in selecting the elective courses are additional courses in the major field, a related minor, an area in the arts, or an off-campus semester.
Only the student’s imagination and initiative and the willingness to conceive and develop a meaningful academic program limit the choices of supplementary elective courses.
A writing-emphasis course requires a student to complete at least 2,000 words of writing during the semester. This normally consists of at least one sustained formal essay or report of 1,000 or more words, plus additional writing assignments such as in-class essay exams, journals, book reviews, short-response papers, and the like. Writing-emphasis courses are designed to help students learn subject material through writing, develop critical thinking and written communication skills, and demonstrate the ability to craft and sustain an argument in writing. Writing-emphasis courses do not necessarily satisfy the University’s General Education Communicating through Writing (WC) requirement. A writing-emphasis course is so designated in the course description found in the Undergraduate Catalog.
Program for Prospective K-12 Teachers
Students planning careers in K-12 teaching must complete an Arts and Sciences major in a department, in one of the interdisciplinary programs, or, if eligible, in the College Scholars Program. Prospective secondary and middle school teachers must fulfill the requirements of appropriate content majors; prospective elementary teachers may choose any major in the College of Arts and Sciences.
To be licensed for teaching, students must also gain formal admission to the Teacher Education Program in the College of Education, Health, and Human Sciences. The process involves successful completion of a series of requirements including presentation of satisfactory scores on certain tests, completing professional courses in the College of Education, Health, and Human Sciences, maintenance of a 2.7 or higher GPA, and completing a fifth year program emphasizing practical application. For details, see the College of Education, Health, and Human Sciences section of this catalog and contact the Advising Center, 332 Bailey Education Complex.